The process of working with credit bureaus and creditors to improve a person's credit report as a way of increasing their FICO credit score. It is the general practice of a consumer challenging inaccurate, misleading, or unverifiable information on the consumer's credit report to improve one's inaccurate credit standing.
Absolutely, although it depends on the method. The Fair Credit Reporting Act allows anyone to dispute inaccurate items on their credit reports. There's nothing we do that you cannot do yourself when it comes to fixing your credit situation. Individuals can restore their credit on their own but this can take time and a lot of knowledge when it comes to the credit laws.
For example, while it is legal to challenge negative items on your credit reports which you believe to be inaccurate, misleading, or unverifiable, accurate information is supposed to remain on your credit report.
By contrast, it is entirely illegal to create a "new" identity by applying for an Employer Identification Number to use instead of one's Social Security Number — a process known as file segregation — in order to escape responsibility by hiding one's credit history. File segregation is a serious crime and can result in fines or imprisonment.